Global CO2 Density Changes observed by "GOSAT-2"

Last Update: 2020/6/25
Overview

GOSAT-2 observes global CO2 enhancement changes. The CO2 enhancement in 2020 is smaller than 2019 in local regions. Simultaneous CH4 enhancement and CO observation are also shown.

Observation and Analysis Results

The largest changes in economic activity associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have been reported in the world countries. The CO2 atmospheric change influenced by the human activity change is possibly seen in space-based measurement. We derived the global distribution of monthly averages of CO2 enhancements related to CO2 flux index in the months of February and March of 2019 and 2020 by using GOSAT-2 CO2 tropospheric partial column density products. These data were averaged in 2-degree spatial grid of latitude and longitude, in monthly temporal trend. We can see some regional CO2 enhancement variations from the last year.

In the CO2 enhancement map, green shows nearly no emission and red and yellow show possible emission area. Both February and March in 2019 had a similar pattern of CO2 enhancement, but the late winter February was higher than the early spring March in the northern hemisphere. Compared to 2019, in February 2020, CO2 enhancement was lower in China and Europe regions. In March, the US regions were additionally lower.

Global distribution of CH4 enhancements differ from that of CO2. This comes from the different local emission source type between CO2 and CH4. Compared to 2019, in February 2020, CH4 enhancement was lower in Asia region. In March, Europe and US regions are additionally decreased.

CO is related to CO2 and emitted by low-temperature combustion of fossil fuel, forest and biomass. The CO density in 2020 was higher than 2019 in the central Africa and the southern part of China by biomass burning. In February 2020, the northern part of China had possibly less CO density than 2019. The accurate understanding needs more detailed analysis including another data in future.

Observation and Analysis Results (CO2)

Analyzed by JAXA/EORC


Fig 1-1: Global distribution of lower tropospheric CO2 enhancements from GOSAT-2 for February and March in 2019

Analyzed by JAXA/EORC


Fig 1-2: Global distribution of lower tropospheric CO2 enhancements from GOSAT-2 for February and March in 2020
Compare between Fig 1-1 and Fig 1-2
Observation and Analysis Results (CH4)

Analyzed by JAXA/EORC


Fig 2-1: Global distribution of lower tropospheric CH4 enhancements from GOSAT-2 for February and March in 2019

Analyzed by JAXA/EORC


Fig 2-2: Global distribution of lower tropospheric CH4 enhancements from GOSAT-2 for February and March in 2020
Compare between Fig 2-1 and Fig 2-2
Observation and Analysis Results (CO)

Analyzed by JAXA/EORC


Fig 3-1: Global distribution of total column-averaged CO mixing ratio from GOSAT-2 for February and March in 2019

Analyzed by JAXA/EORC


Fig 3-2: Global distribution of total column-averaged CO mixing ratio from GOSAT-2 for February and March in 2020
Compare between Fig 3-1 and Fig 3-2
Observation by GOSAT-2

GOSAT-2 has the only asset of coincident solar and thermal measurements, which provide partial column information upper troposphere (4-12 km) and lower troposphere (0-4 km). We then assumed that the upper partial column results represent background CO2 concentrations, which are less affected by the city, while the lower partial column results track the CO2 concentration changes within the city. If so, subtracting monthly averages the upper partial column values over the city from the lower partial column estimates should largely remove the seasonally-varying background values and yield and estimate of the CO2 enhancements near the surface over the city.

The GOSAT-2 partial column products are provided together with GOSAT in global observations with frequent target observations at large cities over 50 locations. JAXA GOSAT-2 and GOSAT will be collaborated with NASA OCO-2 and ESA TROPOMI to challenge to track the COVID-19 pandemic influence on greenhouse gas and air quality.

* GOSAT and GOSAT-2 are joint projects by JAXA, NIES and MOE.

Link

GOSAT/GOSAT-2 EORC Daily Partial Column GHGs

GHGs Trend Viewer - Partial Column

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